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As proposed by Golan Steven (1982); Interviews were conducted with a state director of business and office education, superintendent, curriculum director, director of vocational education, principal, business education department chairman, business education faculty member, parent, and student. The instrument used was “What Do You Believe? ,” 15 statements of ideas expressed in educational literature pertaining to a line of action for curriculum improvement.
Reactions to six statements were in strong agreement. The functioning philosophy of participants would, therefore, include those statements dealing with exposing students to what man knows and does not know, personalized curriculum, benefits of learning from peers and groups, learning difficulties beginning in disturbed home relationships, limits of the subject-matter patterns of organization, and encouragement of developing creative thinking. The purpose of education in Malaysia is to enable Malaysian society to have a command of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary in a world that is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapid development in science, technology, and information”. Preamble to the Education Act (1996). So, I would like to take this topic, the importance of considering philosophical and psychological foundations in developing a curriculum by putting it into Malaysian scene. In other words, at the same time I shall be looking into their importance in developing Malaysian chools’ curriculum. ————————————————- In describing the Philosophy and Psychological Studies at Open University in England, it was clearly written that: Philosophy and psychology seek to answer profound questions about us, our minds, our behaviour, and our place in the social and physical universe. What makes us happy? Do humans display irrational biases? How can I, a mere physical being, have thoughts and emotions? How does science progress and can I trust it? By what moral authority does the state rule over me? Who should get what? Is there a god? Open University, 2012) ————————————————- ————————————————- The psycho-philosophical foundations in developing curriculum embodies the following concepts: the ultimate aim or end of education, the correct sequence of importance of all these ideas in philosophy, excellences that need to be cultivated in effective education, the most important content of the curriculum, best method of instruction and how to teach those instruction in order to develop these excellences, the role of teacher in education and the nature of the student (The wanderwoman. om, May 2011). ————————————————- It seems that both philosophical and psychological foundations in developing a curriculum are really essential. They are the bread and butter to the whole system. Lacking any of these foundations, will create unsteadiness in any schooling system. By looking into the above statements, one would easily realise that philosophical and psychological foundations are very important in developing a curriculum.
In fact, it is how different traditional disciplines have influenced curriculum such as; the philosophy of education recognises that the development of a civil society depends on the education of the young as responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens which is a challenging task requiring deep understanding of ethical principles, moral values, political theory, aesthetics and economics; not to mention an understanding of children themselves (Phillip, 2007). ————————————————- Philosophical ————————————————- ————————————————-
In a recent article published in the Journal of Management Education, American Professors Joy Beatty, Jennifer Leigh and Kathy Dean formulated the article “Philosophy Rediscovered: Exploring the Connections between Teaching Philosophy, Educational Philosophy and Philosophy”. These interacting disciplines are argued to be frequently ignored, which should not happen since teaching philosophy statements are important not just for the teacher’s personal lives, but more importantly, for the schools they practice the profession (Beatty, Leigh and Dean, 2011) ————————————————-
How did philosophy get intertwined with education? For that answer, one would have to go back to Plato (427? 347 BC). According to Ozmon and Craver, Plato, the idealist, is credited with cultivating idealism, “one of the most influential philosophies dealing with education. ” (p. 1). Even though Plato’s theory of a perfect society didn’t quite pan out, he did get people thinking about society in general. He also spawned other philosophical theories from philosophers who embraced his ideas and only wanted to tweak them and little and from ones that totally disagreed with him and came up with their own philosophies to contradict his. ———————————————— One such supporter was Aristotle (384? 322 BC). Aristotle was a student of Plato and supported his views, with one major exception. Aristotle believed that a full understanding of matter would lead to better and clearer ideas and to the truth. Though their end results were the same, the procedure on how to get there varied greatly. Since Aristotle’s philosophy dealt with real objects, he was considered a realist. (Ersek, 2008) Perrennialism Let us begin with the philosophy of education where philosophers hold their philosophies or their own believe about education. The first one named
Perrennialism. As the oldest and the most conservative educational philosophy , it has its roots in the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. In the modern era, it was lead by Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler. They believed that humans are rational and the aim of education is “to improve man as man” (Hutchins, 1953) Perennialists believe that the focus of education should be the ideas that have lasted over centuries. They believe the ideas are as relevant and meaningful today as when they were written. They recommend that students learn from reading and analyzing the works by history’s finest thinkers and writers. (Dewey, 1859-1952).
Perennialist classrooms are centered on teachers in order to accomplish these goals. The teachers are not concerned about the students’ interests or experiences. They use tried and true teaching methods and techniques that are believed to be most beneficial to disciplining students’ minds. The perennialist curriculum is universal and is based on their view that all human beings possess the same essential nature. Perennialists think it is important that individuals think deeply, analytically, flexibly, and imaginatively. They emphasize that students should not be taught information that may soon be outdated or found to be incorrect.
This goes parallelly with the government’s inspiration. According to The Prime Minister of Malaysia; The Malaysian school curriculum is committed to developing the child holistically along intellectual, spiritual, emotional, and physical dimensions, as reflected in the National Education Philosophy. Programmes and initiatives to develop non-academic components are present both during formal class time as well as through a variety of after-school co-curricular activities. For example, Islamic Education or Moral Education is compulsory for all students from Year 1 through to Form 5. E4) Perennialists disapprove of teachers requiring students to absorb massive amounts of disconnected information. They recommend that schools spend more time teaching about concepts and explaining they are meaningful to students. The only example I can think of would be a class about religion or history. The instructor would use religious books and historical documents. (Dewey, 1859-1952). One of the clearest characteristic according to John Arul Phillip (2007) is; school should teach religious values or ethics. (Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum, pg 29).
It seems that religious values really help to strengthen the curriculum. It is well known that the social problems among school children are worsened by the lack of religious and moral values. Jim Walker (1997) in The Problem with Beliefs; “Organized religion has played the most significant role in the support and propagation of beliefs and faith. This has resulted in an acceptance of beliefs in general. Regardless of how one may reject religion, religious support of supernatural events gives credence to other superstitions in general and the support of faith, mysticism, and miracles.
Most scientists, politicians, philosophers, and even atheists support the notion that some forms of belief provide a valuable means to establish “truth” as long as it contains the backing of data and facts. Belief has long become a socially acceptable form of thinking in science as well as religion. Indeed, once a proposition turns to belief, it automatically undermines opposition to itself. Dostoyevsky warned us that those who reject religion “will end by drenching the earth in blood. ” (Walker, 1997). So, instilling religious values in developing a curriculum would strengthen the curriculum itself.
Al-Farabi (872-950 AD) a well known Islamic scholar try to understand the universe and humankind by undertaking the meticulous study of ancient philosophy (particularly Plato and Aristotle) which he integrated into his own Islamic-Arabic civilization whose chief source was the Quran. Al-Farabi used a number of terms to describe education: discipline (taEdib), training (tahdhib), guidance (tasdid), instruction (taElim), exercise or learning (irtiyad) and upbringing (tarbiya) (quoted in Ammar al-Talbi, 1993). He believed that the first aim of knowledge was knowledge of God and His attributes.
He emphasised the need for unity of society and the State to be achieved by unity of thought, wisdom and religion. According to him the whole activity of education is the acquisition of values, knowledge and practical skills leading to perfection and the attainment of happiness. The perfect human being (al insan al kamil) is one who has acquired theoretical virtue (intellectual knowledge) and practical moral virtues (moral behaviour) (Phillip, 2007). Mathematics known as the teachings (taEalim) was given importance because it trains students toward the path of precision and clarity.
The student is to begin with studying arithmetic (numbers) followed by geometry, optics, astronomy, music, dynamics and last of all, mechanics. The student moves in stages from the immaterial and the immeasurable to what needs some matter. (Al-Farabi,1993). As for the conclusion, Al Farabi really considered religious and mathematics in strengthening the curriculum. Essentialism The term essentialism as an educational philosophy was originally popularised in the 1930s by the biggest proponent of essentialism, considered to be the Father of Essentialism, William C. Bagley (1874? 946) and later in the 1950s by Arthur Bestor and Admiral Rickover. When it was first introduced as an educational philosophy in American schools, it was criticised as being too rigid (Phillip, 2007). Essentialism was grounded in a conservative philosophy that argues that schools should not try to radically reshape society. Rather, they should transmit traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Essentialists believe that teachers should instill traditional virtues such as respect for authority, fidelity to duty, consideration for others and practicality.
Essentialism placed importance on science and understanding the world through scientific experimentation. To convey important knowledge about the world, essentialist educators emphasised instruction in natural science rather than non-scientific disciplines such as philosophy or comparative religion. (Phillip, 2007). The ‘basics’ of the essentialist curriculum are mathematics, natural science, history, foreign language, and literature. Essentialists disapprove of vocational, life-adjustment, or other courses with “watered down” academic content.
Even though essentialists have no problem in changing the curriculum if necessary, the philosophy is still considered too static. Because there is no consideration given to extra? curricular activities, students who excel in these areas are left out and may never come to know their true potential as artists or musicians. It makes one wonder why essentialism was a chosen philosophy at all, if all children cannot learn when so much time is devoted to basic skills and taught by teachers who are masters of the subjects they teach.
As far as I am concern, essentialism does not really fit the full requirement of our government as what was stated by our Prime Minister, Dato’ Sri Mohd. Najib Tun Abd Razak (September 2012) in his foreward of Malaysia Blueprint of Education 2013-2025; it inspires creativity and fosters innovation; provides our youth with the necessary skills to be able to compete in the modern labour market; and is a key driver of growth in the economy. He then further added that; our education system has been the bedrock of our development.
It has provided this generation and those before it with the skills and knowledge that have driven the country’s growth and, with it, our prosperity. Last but not least, he was saying that; Our country requires a transformation of its entire education system, lifting achievement for all students. Make no mistake; this will require an entirely new perspective, so that students develop skills needed for the 21st century. Rather than simply adding staff and facilities, there is now a need to understand and improve the dynamics of the teaching and learning process.
Progressivism Progressivism is a philosophical belief that argues that education must be based on the fact that humans are by nature social and learn best in real-life activities with other people. The person most responsible for progressivism was John Dewey (1859-1952). The progressive movement stimulated American schools to broaden their curriculum, making education more relevant to the needs and interests of students. Dewey wrote extensively on psychology, epistemology (the origin of knowledge), ethics and democracy.
But, his philosophy of education laid the foundation for progressivism. In 1896, while a professor at the University of Chicago, Dewey founded the famous Laboratory School to test his educational ideas (Phillip, 2007). To take a crude example, traditionalists might claim that progressive methods fail to secure traditional academic goals of getting children through examinations; the trouble is that child-centred educationists are notoriously prone to reject what they take to be the sacrifice of other mportant goals of psychological well-being in pursuit of such aims (David, 1998). According to him certain abilities and skills can only be learned in a group. Social and intellectual interaction dissolves the artificial barriers of race and class by encouraging communication between various social groups (Dewey, 1920). He described education as a process of growth and experimentation in which thought and reason are applied to the solution of problems. Children should learn as if they were scientists using the scientific method proposed by Dewey (1920).
Indeed, nothing better illustrates how the assumed connection between progressivism and non-didactic pedagogy very readily comes apart than the celebrated inspectorate critique of teaching methods at A. S. Neill’s famous or ‘notorious’ school Summerhill (Neill, 1965). For, despite the fact that Summerhill is widely regarded as the very epitome of progressive schooling, Neill’s teaching methods were found wanting on the grounds of their exclusively formal and didactic nature-despite which, it would clearly be highly implausible to suggest that Neill was not after all a progressive but a traditionalist.
Moreover, other notable attempts to link progressivism to educational method seem no more persuasive. Indeed, one such attempt to establish a connection of this kind is to be found in the widely read textbook of educational philosophy, The Logic of Education (Hirst ;amp; Peters, 1970), where it is argued that whilst traditionalism is a doctrine about educational aims and content to some exclusion of considerations of pedagogy and method, progressivism has been concerned with method rather to the neglect of aims and content.
But apart from the fact that methodologically unconcerned progressivists such as Neill, and a long-standing traditionalist programme of research into pedagogy (the behavioural objectives movement) both give the lie to any such thesis, it also seems less than likely on the grounds that traditionalism and progressivism could hardly be regarded as serious educational perspectives at all-still less as opposed perspectives-if they were at once so skewedly one-sided and so complementary in just these respects.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) , was known for his socio-religious and cultural innovations. In 1901 he founded a school at Santiniketan based on the ancient forest schools which emphasised three basic elements of Indian culture, namely Advaita (non-duality) in the field of knowledge, friendship for all in the field of feeling and fulfilment of one’s duties without concern for the outcomes in the field of action (Narmadeshwar Jha, 1994). To him, education should aim for the all-round development of the individual personality through interaction and union with the environment.
Education should provide the individual with a satisfactory means of livelihood followed by fulfilment and completeness. Schools should be made more lively and enjoyable. They should be more attractive and productive and should be established away from the turmoil of human habitation under an open sky and surrounded by the fields, trees and plants. Classes were held outdoor (whenever the weather permitted) so that students gained from being in a natural setting while learning (Tagore, 1994). Progressivism is very much in line with the people’s need in the future.
Malaysian Government paid special attention on promoting Science lesson among school children by offering incentive to their parents as told by the Minister of Education Muhyidin Yasin (New Strait Times, 27Oct 2012). Reconstructionism Reconstructionism was a philosophy uniquely popular in the U. S. during the 1930’s through the 1960’s. It was largely the brain child of Theodore Brameld from Columbia Teachers College. He began as a communist, but shifted to reconstructionism. Reconstructionists favour reform and argue that students must be taught how to bring about change.
Reconstructionism is a philosophy that believes in the rebuilding of social and cultural infrastructures. Students are to study social problems and think of ways to improve society. Another proponent of reconstructionism was George Counts (1932), who in a speech titled Dare the School Build a New Social Order, suggested that schools become the agent of social change and social reform. Students cannot afford to be neutral but must take a position. This is very important in developing a curriculum since the end result of education is to have a prosper life.
According to Confucius (551-479 BC), who very much involved in the curriculum of life; education plays a fundamental role in the development of society and of individuals alike. Education should seek to produce virtuous individuals which will change human society. By raising the moral standard of individuals, society will become more virtuous, the country well-governed, and its citizens law-abiding. the aim of education is to produce capable individuals (ziancai) whom he called shi (gentlemen) or junzi (men of quality) who combined competence with virtue.
They would serve the government and bring about an ideal managed by men of virtue. The cultivation of virtue was to be through observation, study and reflective thought. Among the virtues given priority are: filial piety (xiao), respect for the elderly, (ti), loyalty (zhong), respectfulness (gong), magnanimity (kuan), fidelity (xin), diligence (min), altruism (hui), kindness (liang), frugality (jian), tolerance (rang), wisdom (zhi) and courage (yong). ————————————————- Psychological ————————————————-
Now we are going into the importance of psychological foundation of curriculum, focusing on how different psychological perspectives impact curriculum. It has a very significant and great influence in the curriculum. Students / learners are not machine and their mind is not a computer. Therefore, psychological foundations will help curriculum makers in nurturing a more advanced, comprehensive and complete human learning (Bernado, Tamayo, Kim & Nismal, 2012). Psychology deals with how humans learn and behave. Without proper preparation, the curriculum made won’t be able to form a good generation of a country.
Educated technically prepared citizens could lead differences. After all, the main goal of any curriculum is to bring about learning. Hence, curriculum developers need to know how humans learn so that they can incorporate sychological principles when they design, develop and implement curriculum. Just as there are varying philosophical orientations, there are also varying conceptions of human learning and how the curriculum should be conceived especially with regards to learning in the classroom. According to Francis Hunkins, Patricia Hammill (1994); whether they are congruent with how humans learn.
According to Tyler there are four things that Psychology dominated the 20th century, led by Edward Thorndike who later influenced well-known curricularists such as Hilda Taba and Ralph Tyler. (Francis Hunkins, Patricia Hammill, 1994). Scientific study of human learning began only in the late 19th century though philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, al-Farabi and Confucius have attempted to explain human learning much earlier. For example, John Locke, an 18th century philosopher compared children’s minds to blank slates or tabula rasa.
He believed that children’s experiences are etched or carved into their minds in much the way that one writes on slates with a chalk (Phillip, 2007). The curriculum developer is interested in knowing how organisation of the curriculum can enhance learning. Ralph Tyler, a well-known scholar in curriculum development proposed in the 1960s that anything that is to be taught in the classroom should be subjected to a psychology screen” to establish are considered fundamental to develop the curriculum, Namely determining goals, learning experience, organizing learning experiences and evaluation. ———————————————— So, there are four psychological perspectives or schools of thought that have had an impact on curriculum; classified as behaviourism, cognitivism, humanism, and constructivism. Behaviourial Perspective Examines current theories of psychology, including the view that psychology is undergoing a paradigm shift and that the paradigm due for suppression can be identified with “behaviorism”. (Berlyne, D. E. , 1975) The behaviourist school, which represents traditional psychology, is rooted in a corresponding philosophical speculation about the nature of learning.
It has particularly dominated psychology in the first half of the twentieth century. After a few decades of being in the wilderness l? t has recently gained currency once again with the advent of individualized education (Vedyadhara, 1975) In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt established the first laboratory in Germany dedicated to the scientific study of human thought processes which is often used as the beginning of modern psychology. using experiments to studying the human mind moved psychology from the domain of philosophy to the laboratory.
Through introspection, Wundt and his colleagues tried to get their subjects to reflect on their thought processes. By the turn of the century, the behaviourist school emerged as a reaction to the method of introspection used by Wundt. Proponents of behaviourism argued that the introspection method was too subjective and felt that scientific study of psychology must be restricted to the study of behaviours that can be observed and the stimulus that brings about the behavior (Phillip, 2007).
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), the famous Russian physiologist introduced the theory of classical conditioning through a series experiments with dogs. Based on the Law of Association proposed by Greek philosophers such Aristotle, he showed that an organism can associate a particular stimulus with a particular response. Learning is the result of an association formed between a stimulus (such as food) and a response (the animal salivating). At the same time, Edward Thorndike (1874-1949), also worked with animals and defined learning as habit formation.
In his experiments, a hungry cat was placed in a box and could escape and eat the food by pressing a lever inside the box and after much trial and error behaviour, the cat learned to associate pressing the lever (Stimulus) with opening the door (Response). This S-R connection when established resulted in a satisfying state of affairs (escape from the box). Certain behaviours are more likely to be learned than others because the nervous system of the organism is ready to make the connection leading to a satisfying state of affairs. It is preparation for action (Phillip, 2007).
As for B. Frederick Skinner (1900-1980), he worked with rats and pigeons. The theory of Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behaviour. He introduced the term ‘operant’ which means to act upon. He put a hungry rat in a box and each time the rat pressed the lever, a food pellet would be given. This resulted in the rat pressing the lever each time it wanted food. When a particular response or behaviour is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner’s S-R theory.
A reinforcer could be anything like a parent saying ‘good work’ or the child obtaining an ‘A’ in history which gives the child a feeling of accomplishment and satisfaction (Phillip, 2007). Last but not least, Walter Bandura (1925 – present) emphasised the importance of observing and modelling the behaviours, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura learning would be a slow process if people had to rely solely on the own efforts to do anything. Fortunately, a substantial amount of human behaviour is learned by observing others.
For the student to learn he or she must watch and pay attention to the model and the behaviour being modeled. The information observed must be retained in some form in memory. Next, the student must have the necessary motor and cognitive skills to reproduce the modeled behaviour. Like advertisements which suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular hair shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people (Phillip, 2007). Cognitivism Today most psychologists explain the phenomenon of human growth and development in cognitive, social, psychological and physical terms.
They also note that learning is primarily cognitive in nature. Growth and development refer to changes in the structure and function of human characteristics. Most cognitivists believe that growth and development occur in progressive stages. One example is Piaget’s (Piaget, 1950) description of cognitive development in terms of stages from birth to maturity (Vedyadhara, 1975) In the 1950s there was a realisation that behaviourism did not fully explain human learning. Although behaviourism emphasised learning that was observable and measurable, there was something missing, namely mental events.
Cognitivists felt that it was necessary to investigate how learners make sense of what they learn, even though such mental events are difficult to observe. However, it should be noted that unlike behaviourism there is no single theory explaining cognitive processes or the mysteries of the ‘black box’ (Phillip, 2007). All learning has to do something with memory. If we cannot remember from what we have experienced we will never be able to learn anything. People are more likely to pay attention to information that is interesting or important to them. Sensory memory is very short and lasts for about ? econd (Atkinson and Shriffin, 1968) Consructivism A baby is born and soon takes her first step. In that short period the amount of learning and understanding of her immediate environment is enormous. The early years are significant because it provides the basis for language, physical dexterity, social understanding and emotional development for the rest of the child’s life. Just imagine the vast amount of knowledge that would have been acquired by the time the child enters school. Increasingly there is evidence to suggest that not everything the child learns is taught by adults.
The child teaches herself by absorbing information and experiencing the world around her. Such learning is the basis of constructivism, an idea that has generated much excitement and interest among educators. Learning is the active construction of knowledge. So, constructivism is a perspective of learning that has its origins in the works of Bruner, Piaget and Vygotsky. The knowledge, beliefs and skills an individual brings to a learning situation should be given due importance. Learners are not passive recipients of information but are active agents engaging in constructing their own knowledge.
Knowledge is seldom transferred intact from the mind of the teacher to the mind of the student. “Knowledge is the result of an individual subject’s constructive activity, not a commodity that somehow resides outside the knower and can be conveyed or instilled by diligent perception or linguistics communication” (Glaserfeld, 1990, p. 37). Humanism The humanistic approach to learning refers to a wide variety of ideas and techniques. While there may be many interpretations, they all advocate humanising teaching and learning. The learner is a person who has feelings, attitudes and emotions.
Emotions such as self-efficacy, self-assurance, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation determine how a student approaches learning. However, not all emotions facilitate learning. Stress and constant fear have a profound effect on learners’ ability to think and learn effectively. Past experience such as grades and failures have a major impact on a student’s current ability to learn. Abraham Maslow observed that humans are constantly striving to control their behaviour and seeking to gratify themselves. He proposed his well-know theory called ‘Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs’ (1943).
According to this theory, individuals satisfy their needs as follows: survival needs: food, water, air and rest, safety needs: to be safe and avoid danger, belongingness and love needs: gain affection of people and need to belong to a group, esteem needs: to be recognised and feeling worthwhile, knowing and understanding needs: a desire to know, learn and understand (Phillip, 2007). Carl Rogers was a psychotherapist who believed that the client was the most important person and developed what he called client-centred therapy.
The therapist was not to tell the client what to do but rather the client should learn how to control his or her own behaviour. He established a warm, positive and acceptant atmosphere in which he was able to empathise with his clients and sense their thought and feelings. When applied to education, he proposed that classrooms become learner-centred and teachers should facilitate learning. Letting students talk about their feelings and finding ways to vent their emotions productively can help then to learn.
Arthur Combs believed that how a person perceives himself or herself is most important and that the basic purpose of teaching is to help each student develop a positive self-concept. The role of the teacher is that of facilitator, encourager, helper, colleague and friend of his or her students (Phillip, 2007). In the nutshell, keeping in view the prevalent political, economic and academic climate, it is not difficult for us to visualize future trends and the influence they may have on education, particularly on curriculum development (Vedyadhara, 1975).
It is very clear that the importance of considering philosophical and psychological foundations in developing a curriculum is essential and significant. Without both, curriculum won’t reach the level where it is now. We have explored the foundations of the curriculum and touched upon future curricular trends. We emphasised that each one of the foundations is important, since it contributes ideas that are crucial in framing a curriculum (Vedyadhara, 1975). PART B Review on ‘Performance Assessment of Academic Departments: CIPP Model’. Introduction
Everybody could create any campaign or decide on any new act, but without proper planning, implementing, evaluation and enforcement, the outcome would be very saddening. There must be a special tool or instrument to evaluate things around us. But planning, implementing and assessing a service that is related to teaching and learning project can be a complex task because it so often involve multiple constituencies, where the aim is to meet both the needs of service provider and community partners. To narrow the discussion, let’s look into formal education.
As have been known by many, curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. Curriculum helps to develop the school system which later lead the country into its development. So, it is very important to evaluate curriculum. But how should we go about evaluating it? Lets focus on determining whether the curriculum plan implemented has achieved its goal and objectives as planned. In other words, it has to be evaluated to ensure whether all the work and effort in term of financial and human resources has been worthwhile.
There are several different model proposed by the experts, how and what should be involved in the evaluating process. Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) The Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) Model for evaluation is a comprehensive framework for guiding formative and summative evaluations of programmes, projects, personnel, products, institutions and systems, on top of curriculum and others. Corresponding to the letters in the acronym CIPP, this model’s core parts are context, input, process, and product evaluation. In general, these four parts of an evaluation respectively ask, What needs to be done? How should it be done?
Is it being done? Did it succeed? This model was introduced by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1966 to guide mandated evaluations of U. S. federally funded projects. It is decision-oriented in order to provide knowledge and a value base for making or defending decisions. The writer reviews the article on ‘Performance Assessment of Academic Departments: CIPP Model’. CONTEXT EVALUATION Evaluaters Activities ?? Compile and assess background information on the intended beneficiaries’ needs and assets. Universities must introduce systematic evaluations of education at departmental, faculty and university-wide levels (Rossi et al, 2004).
Statistical performance indicators can improve the reliability of such evaluations (HEFCE, 1999). Performance indicators are a range of statistical and non-statistical indicators intended to offer an objective measure of how a higher education institute is performing. Performance indicators provide reliable information on the nature and performance of the educational institutions, reveal a number of aspects of the students’ experience at higher education European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 23, Number 2 (2011)228 institutions, and allow comparisons to be made between institutions wherever appropriate (Kells, 1992). ? Interview program leaders to review and discuss their perspectives on beneficiaries’ needs and to identify any problems (political or otherwise) the program will need to solve. Four heads of the departments and all the faculty members in these departments participated in this study. ? Interview other stakeholders to gain further insight into the needs and assets of intended beneficiaries and potential problems for the program. ?? Assess program goals in light of beneficiaries’ assessed needs and potentially useful assets. ??
Engage a data collection specialist to monitor and record data on the program’s environment, including related programs, area resources, area needs and problems, and political dynamics. ? Request that program staff regularly make available to the evaluation team information they collect on the program’s beneficiaries and environment. ? Annually, or as appropriate, prepare and deliver to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders a draft context evaluation report providing an update on program-related needs, assets, and problems, along with an assessment of the program’s goals and priorities. ? Periodically, as appropriate, discuss context evaluation findings in feedback sessions presented to the client and designated audiences. ? Finalize context evaluation reports and associated visual aids and provide them to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. Clients/ Stakeholder Activities- Programme Aims. ? Use the context evaluation findings in selecting and/or clarifying the intended beneficiaries. ? Use the context evaluation findings in reviewing and revising, as appropriate, the program’s goals to assure they properly target assessed needs. Use the context evaluation findings in assuring that the program is taking advantage of pertinent community and other assets. ? Use the context evaluation findings—throughout and at the program’s end—to help assess the program’s effectiveness and significance in meeting beneficiaries’ assessed needs. .INPUT EVALUATION ? Identify and investigate existing programs that could serve as a model for the contemplated program. The first step in deciding what to evaluate was to check the program logic model developed for the program.
Since the program logic model graphically depicts how a program is supposed to operate, after developing the logic model developing an evaluation plan was determined for the program. ? Assess the program’s proposed strategy for responsiveness to assessed needs and feasibility. ? Assess the program’s budget for its sufficiency to fund the needed work. ? Assess the program’s strategy against pertinent research and development literature. ? Assess the merit of the program’s strategy compared with alternative strategies found in similar programs. Assess the program’s work plan and schedule for sufficiency, feasibility, and political viability. ? Compile a draft input evaluation report and send it to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. ? Discuss input evaluation findings in a feedback workshop. ? Finalize the input evaluation report and associated visual aids and provide them to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. ? Use the input evaluation findings to devise a program strategy that is scientifically, economically, socially, politically, and technologically defensible. Use the input evaluation findings to assure that the program’s strategy is feasible for meeting the assessed needs of the targeted beneficiaries. ? Use the input evaluation findings to devise a program strategy that is scientifically, economically, socially, politically, and technologically defensible. ? Use the input evaluation findings to support funding requests for the planned enterprise. ? Use the input evaluation findings to acquaint staff with issues pertaining to the successful implementation of the program. Use the input evaluation findings for accountability purposes in reporting the rationale for the selected program strategy and the defensibility of the operational plan. Input evaluation assesses competing strategies and the work plans and budgets of the selected approach. In this particular evaluation, the researcher did not identify and investigate any existing programs that could serve as a model for the contemplated program. They did not even use the input evaluation findings to devise a program strategy that is scientifically, economically, socially, politically, and technologically defensible.
None of them mentioned in the evaluation. We also could not find the assessment of the program’s proposed strategy for responsiveness to assessed needs and feasibility because there was no program’s. No budget mentioned for its sufficiency to fund the needed work so there was no input evaluation findings to support funding requests for the planned enterprise. They did use the input evaluation findings to acquaint staff with issues pertaining to the successful implementation of the program such as; Distance learning is playing an increasingly larger role as a teaching component in the field of agricultural education.
Research has demonstrated that many College of Agricultural and Life Sciences faculty members lacked sufficient knowledge of the fundamentals of distance education (Stedman et al. , 2011). Literature indicates that the occurrence of distance learning instruction is ubiquitous in many agricultural educationdepartments (Roberts and Dyer, 2005). Agricultural faculty are facing increased pressure to provide onlinecourses. Classroom students are often more satisfied with instruction than students in an online environment (Wachenheim, 2004).
There was no assessment for the merit of the program’s strategy compared with alternative strategies found in similar programs. No discussion on the input evaluation findings in a feedback workshop which lead to no finalizetowards the input evaluation report and associated visual aids and provide them to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. PROCESS EVALUATION Use the process evaluation findings to coordinate and strengthen staff activities. ? Engage an evaluation team member to monitor, observe, maintain a photographic record of, and provide periodic progress reports on program implementation. Use the process evaluation findings to strengthen the program design. ? In collaboration with the program’s staff, maintain a record of program events, problems, costs, and allocations. ? Use the process evaluation findings to maintain a record of the program’s progress. ? Periodically interview beneficiaries, program leaders, and staff to obtain their assessments of the program’s progress. Use the process evaluation findings to help maintain a record of the program’s costs. ? Maintain an up-to-date profile of the program. Periodically draft written reports on process evaluation findings and provide the draft reports to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. ? Use the process evaluation findings to report on the program’s progress to the program’s financial sponsor, policy board, community members, other developers, etc. ? Present and discuss process evaluation findings in feedback workshops. ? Finalize each process evaluation report (possibly incorporated into a larger report) and associated visual aids and provide them to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. IMPACT EVALUATION
Use the impact evaluation findings to assure that the program is reaching intended beneficiaries. ? Engage the program’s staff and consultants and/or an evaluation team member to maintain a directory of persons and groups served; make notations on their needs and record program services they received. ?? Use the impact evaluation findings to assess whether the program is reaching or did reach inappropriate beneficiaries. ? Assess and make a judgment of the extent to which the served individuals and groups are consistent with the program’s intended beneficiaries. Use the impact evaluation findings to judge the extent to which the program is serving or did serve the right beneficiaries. ? Use the impact evaluation findings to judge the extent to which the program addressed or is addressing important community needs. ? Periodically interview area stakeholders, such as community leaders, employers, school and social programs personnel, clergy, police, judges, and homeowners, to learn their perspectives on how the program is influencing the community. Use the impact evaluation findings for accountability purposes regarding the program’s success in reaching the intended beneficiaries. ? Include the obtained information and the evaluator’s judgments in a periodically updated program profile. ? Determine the extent to which the program reached an appropriate group of beneficiaries. ? Assess the extent to which the program inappropriately provided services to a non targeted group. ? Draft an impact evaluation report (possibly incorporated into a larger report) and provide it to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders. As appropriate, discuss impact evaluation findings in feedback sessions. ? Report the impact evaluation findings to the client and agreed-upon stakeholders They did engage the instructors to maintain a directory of persons and groups served; make notations on their needs and record program services they received. They also used the impact evaluation findings to assess whether the program is reaching or did reach inappropriate beneficiaries. They did use the impact evaluation findings to judge the extent to which the program is serving or did serve the right beneficiaries.
Use the impact evaluation findings to judge the extent to which the program addressed or is addressing important community needs. . Part C. Introduction English is without a doubt the actual universal language. It is the world’s second largest native language, the official language in 70 countries, and English-speaking countries are responsible for about 40% of world’s total GNP. English can be at least understood almost everywhere among scholars and educated people, as it is the world media language, and the language of cinema, TV, pop music and the computer world.
All over the planet people know many English words, their pronunciation and meaning (Carlos Carrion Torres, 2012). English used to be spoken as a monolingual language which was restricted to Britain and its domain of influence. However, today it is spoken by over two billion people in the world in various dialects and proficiency levels. As English has gone beyond its natural borders, nonnative speakers of English outnumber native speakers three to one as asserted by Crystal (1997).
In course of time, English has established itself as the world language of research and publication and it is being used by a multitude of universities and institutes of learning (FERDA TUNC, 2010) In our country, English is compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools curriculum in line with its status as a second language. The Cabinet Committee Report on the Review of the Implementation of the Education Policy 1997 states that the teaching of English is to enable all school-leavers to use English in certain everyday situations and work situations.
It also to allow students to persue higher education in the medium of English (KBSM English Syillabus, 2000) However, English is becoming increasingly important in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and as a global language. Therefore, the use of English in ICT has been included in the curriculum. In early 2000, leading Malaysian educators addressed the importance of good knowledge of English toadvance far in education, business and career (KBSM English Syillabus, 2000). By having English as one of our core subjects, it is hoped that our graduates will be well accepted in the working world, locally and internationally.
This essay aims to analyse the curriculum of KBSM English program through the perspectives of the writer. The component of the CIPP (context, input, process, and product) evaluation model developed by Stufflebeam (1971) is utilized. Context It is a fact that evaluation may be conducted for a wide range of reasons in every part of our life. In terms of education, it can be stated that the main purpose of evaluation is to obtain information about student and teacher performance along with classroom interactions.
Through the Context evaluation, as a language, learning of English in Malaysian schools is well related to many other subjects like Science and Mathematics and in learning literature, part of the curriculum for secondary schools. There are also all sorts of short and long courses conducted in English. This is going to be a kind of bonus to the well versed students where their understanding of the language helps them to succeed in their studies. Referring to the writer own experience, adequate time has been given to the subject.
The only thing is that, how do the students perceive the importance of this subject for their near future. Referring to the East Cost situation, where most students especially those who are very weak in the language usage, is taking for granted in learning it effectively. This leads to the weakening of few other subjects like Science and mathematics (before the learning and teaching of these two subjects return to Malay medium. The Malaysian Government is spending a huge amount of money lately to ensure the effectiveness of the learning and teaching of English.
But without proper planning and implementations, it goes down to the drain. The Ministery of Education is paying a special attention on promoting the subject but yet, it doesn’t go far. It is the implementation that matters Eventhough the government is calling in many native lecturers and teachers into our country (especially from Britain, Canada and New Zealand to name a few), but these actions do not reach the target for certain reasons like the perception of students towards the subject. The ministry members should really visit the schools to determine the reasons.
The subject should be integrated and get along well with other English based subject. The learning process should be began seriously and adequately as early as 5 years old of age. At home, the family also should instill the usage of English as spoken language. Lets links the subject with the research and extension activities. The Minister of Education in most of his speech was saying that the government never puts aside the Malay language but the only thing is that, it is a real challenge to promote English among school students.
Somehow or rather, the subject is very relevant to local and international job needs. In Terengganu alone, specifically in Kemaman, English id the determining characteristic in landing oneself into the well paid Oil and Gas Industries jobs which available every now and then. Inputs In spite of the importance given to language learning by the national educational system, Malaysian students relatively fail to acquire both productive and comprehensive skills in English and they generally fall behind the desired level of proficiency. The reasons of this failure have been discussed for a long time.
Basically, the students basic English ability in those rural and remote schools are pretty bad. And with the result oriented schooling system, our students ignored the fact that they must also communicating by using the language. The school must organize an awareness campaign to ensure the success of the language. This is to enhance and speed up the leaning process. Rural school where the majority of the students are weak, should promote the language by holding competitions, English day, week or month. These are to overcome their daily life’s lack of practice and drilling.
Living in the Malay traditional villagers limits their effort to communicate in English, thus deepening the problem to be fluent. Their collections of daily vocabulary is very limited to their text books lists. Their existing vocabulary is not enough to cater the needs of ICT. Thus again, limits their opportunity to browse the internet freely. Looking for research material becomes their scary job. As mentioned earlier in the above paragraph, the curriculum is aimed to extend learners language proficiency for knowledge acquisition, among others. It is perfectly good but does it really successful so far?
The answer lies in everybody’s words. It seems that the teachers are burdened with so many external tasks that they spent so little time teaching. It is agreed that the objectives are derived from the aims but to maintain the outcomes like the previous years where students’ proficiency of English is high is another different story. Social interaction between the teachers and students is decreasing. Teachers are busy and the students are full of ignorance. Even though the objectives are smart and well done, they are not carefully implemented in classrooms.
The KBSM English curriculum’s content significantly divided into three areas namely Interpersonal Purposes (refers to the use of English to make and keep friendships, Informational Purposes (involves in obtaining, processing and presenting information) and Aesthetic Perposes (the ability to enjoy literary texts and be able to express ideas, opinions and feelings creatively and imaginatively) KBSM English Syllabus, 2000). They are clearly defined and arranged to maximize the outcomes. In the urban schools, the content matches the students well but when comes to the rural areas, they are just too high to be touched.
Looking into the content; lets refer to KBSM English Syllabus ( 2000). page 4, item 2. 1; present the information to different audiences by writing directions, instructions, accounts and the list goes on. But, how much time is given to ensure the effectiveness of the lessons? The writer believes that they are not even a quarter of the time allocated for this activity. So, do not hold any seminar on this as the implementation is rather poor and left behind. In other words, the content is not relevant to practical problems. The theory and practice are not balanced.
In term of resources and equipment, the Malaysian English language teachers are well equipped with the teaching materials, audio-visual gadgets and in some schools, they even have language labs. Their knowledge, skills and attitudes related to the subject are well looked after. Courses on new teaching technique is given priority along the way. Books especially the textbooks are updated every couple of years. At time, school authority spent thousands of Ringgit in preparing a good English corner in the libraries. Unfortunately, the students refuse to make use of it since they prefer websites and televisions’ lessons.
Every year, The Education Ministry is sending out many students to learn English at their native countries. Meaning to say, the teaching strength among the English teachers are strong while the rest are graduated from local and international universities. Who also supposed to be fluent in teaching and speaking. With a proper guidance, the students could get a very good exposition. More and more programmes are held and organized for the sake of promoting English. Next, let’s look into the available time for the learner compared to the workload.
Do they have enough time on top of the so many co curriculum activities, additional classes and tuitions? The writer always thought that they hardly have enough time to do revision, what not the homework given. Without doing the homework, the students won’t be able to stomach the lesson well. Many new buildings were built all over the country in order to accommodate more students with a supportive and condusive environment. The big classes are enough for around 30 students which suitable for learning environment. They are sometimes equipped with computer, LCD and proper screen.
Though the teacher-student’s ratio is not good enough, the writer believed that there are enough teachers for everyone. Process Looking into its Language content, grammar, Eight Parts of Speech plus the sentence structures are among the necessity lessons. By the additional literature and essays work, there are pretty heavy work load waiting for them. So, something got to be done to reduce the pressure of learning this and completing that situation. They are already burdened by to understand what is English all about plus to worry about the examinations where everyone needs to score A.
Once there are problems related to effective 2 ways communication, the learning and teaching process become static and untolerable. The teachers always preach the students to do well but at the same time, they are given enough opportunity to learn. There are many cases where teachers are dominating the class to the end of the period allocated without participation from the students. Even if the teachers managed to transfer the information, unfortunately the students could not use, apply or analyse the knowledge and skill. That is among reasons why writing essays are still one of the biggest problems.
What the writer really hope is that, the teaching and learning process should be evaluated continuously to maintain the learning discipline. Because currently, the schools are not really keen into enforcing all sorts of rules and regulations, dos and don’ts that was impose by the authority. The cooperation and interpersonal relation between teachers students are not well taken care and looked after. The structure of school officials could guarantee the maximum care is given to this subject since it is too important to be ignored. But in the reality, it does not work that way. Product
In the middle and end of every schooling term, there will be mid term and end term examinations design to evaluate the students’ understanding of the lesson and whether it could be used correctly, utilized and analysed accordingly. There are also many monthly test to evaluate them topically at the same time the effectiveness of the lesson. Informal assessment is carried out randomly during the teaching and learning process. When the students are happy, contented and satisfied with the whole things, they will act accordingly towards the workload given by the teachers. They will do the homework happily as they understand the lessons well.
This overall experience made them accepted the language as part of their daily activities and will not be reluctant to coomunicate and speak in English even though they are not that well versed. As for the conclusion, the main lesson learned from this study is, the curriculum is quite well designed and nicely arranged according to the needs of all aspects or professionalism but the implementation and supervision is way out from how it supposed to be. In other words, if everybody concern is willing to sit down and discuss the outcomes and post mortem, InsyaAllah the whole things will be much better and greater than ever.
Results of the study indicated that the KBSM English Syllabus partially served for its purpose. The findings revealed that some improvements in the physical conditions, content, materials and assessment dimensions of the program were required to make the program more effective. As all the trainers, lecturers and teachers are working together with the Ministry of Education, the state level education committee, British Council and the local higher learning institutions, the aims and objectives are ready to be re-implemented. There are still many rooms to be improved.
The students together with their parents should take special measures to increase the ability of having English as a ready tool to strive in their education. The government ought to take excellent steps in ensuring the money, time and energy spent on this matter in line with the government hope, Reference Stufflebeam’s CIPP Model of Evaluation, By Priyanka Padayachee (MA Research Psychology) University of the Witwatersrand CIPP EVALUATION MODEL CHECKLIST A tool for applying the Fifth Installment of the CIPP Model to assess long-term enterprises (Daniel L.
Stufflebeam, June 2002) Cipp Model (Context, Input, Process, Product)(Daniel L. Stufflebeam, 2002). ————————————————- Beyond Tyler and Taba: Reconceptualizing the curriculum process (Francis Hunkins, Patricia Hammill, 1994). Behaviourism? Cognitive theory? Humanistic psychology? To Hull with them all. (Berlyne, D. E. , 1975) Curriculum Development, OUM (John Arul Phillip, 2007) Essentialism. (Vicki Ersek, 2008) Malaysia Blueprint of Education 2013-2025 (Mohd. Najib Tun Abd Razak, Sept. 012) The Philosophical, Sociological, and Psychological Foundations of Curriculum (Golan Steven,1982). Psychological Foundations of the Curriculum ( Willard C. Olson, 1957) Psychological Foundations of Curriculum ((Hanna Bernado, Corrine Tamayo, Sophie Kim & Ann Nismal, 2012) Psychological Foundations of Curriculum (Amy C. Tate, Tiffany Goad, Mike Gralish, 2009) Traditionalism and progressivism: A perennial problematic of educational theory and policy . Westminster Studies in Education (Carr.
David, 1998) The Foundation of Educational Web (Peter Theodore, 2012) The Problem with Beliefs (Jim Walker,1997) The Philosophy and Psychological Studies at Open University, England, ( 2012) The Impact of Philosophy and Psychology in Curriculum. (Thewander woman. com, May 2011) From the review, the writer found out that this study was to assess graduate student’s perceptions of the learning environment, social presence, and satisfaction with agricultural education eLearning courses at Texas A ;amp; M.
More specifically, this study sought to describe students’ learning environment in eLearning courses, describe students ‘ social presence in eLearning courses and describe students’ satisfaction in eLearning courses. In compiling and assessing background of the intended beneficiaries, two previous surveys and demographic questions were used by the researcher to create a 48 item instrument to address the study’s objectives. Graduate student satisfaction in eLearning courses was obtained by using the Distance Education Learning Environment Survey and the Social Presence Scale.
A team of distance learning researchers at Texas A;amp;M analyzed the content and face validity of the instrument. The combined instrument’s reliability was calculated ex post facto to be a = . 88, resulting in a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach, 1951). On top of that, the students’ scores also supported social presence theory. This theory evaluates the salience of an individual’s communication with other individuals and their interpersonal relationships (Short et al. , 1976).
Tu and Mclssac (2002) wrote that three dimensions of social presence theory in distance learning environments are interactivity, social context, and online communication. Anyway, the researcher did not interview any programme leader either to review or discuss the beneficiaries’ need, and there was also no interview on stake holders even though it was stated clearly; when conducting this research it is also necessary to incorporate stakeholders into the process. Stufflebeam (1973) identified the stakeholders as individuals who both participate in the evaluation and also use the results (Travis et al, 2012).
In fact, there was no evidence of such interview in the evaluation process. Furthermore, there was no assessment on the goals of the beneficiaries being assessed. Also no evaluators engaged to monitor the data recorded. It seemed that not much of the researcher involvement towards to really study the outcomes. There was no regular request of staff to make the outcome available for the evaluation team. As there was also no annual draft to be delivered to the clients and stake holders and no discussion on context evaluation findings in any feedback workshop.
The researcher did use the context evaluation in selecting and clarifying the intended beneficiaries. As mentioned, Swan (2001) found strong positive linkages between the level of student satisfaction and the program design. Further research conducted by Richardson and Swan (2003) found interaction between participants can substantially improve the level of student’s satisfaction when utilizing distance education as an instructional tool. Student satisfaction is positively linked to perceived learning and the number of modules contained in the course (Swan, 2001).
The researcher used the context evaluation findings—throughout and at the program’s end—to help assess the program’s effectiveness and significance in meeting beneficiaries’ assessed needs. As mentioned in the evaluation; Social presence is a key element of the distance instructional method. Short et al. (1976) define social presence as the amount of one individual’s communication with other individuals and the interpersonal relationships that result from this communication.
Social presence has been identified as critical for the successful absorption of knowledge within the distance educational framework. The quality of the interactions is as important as the quantity of the interactions (Garrison and Cleveland-Innes, 2005). Social presence approaches in learning are both a process that guides the student and also an outcome resulting from thestudent’s engagementas higher levels of learning emerge from comfortable communities of inquiry (Cleveland-Innes and Ernes, 2005).